Building, Testing, and Updating Prow

This guide is directed at Prow developers and maintainers who want to build/test individual components or deploy changes to an existing Prow cluster. “Deploying Prow” is a better reference for deploying a new Prow cluster.

How to build and test Prow

You can build, test, and deploy Prow’s binaries, container images, and cluster resources.

Build locally with:

make -C prow build-images

Push to remote with

make -C prow push-images REGISTRY=<YOUR_REGISTRY>

Unit test with:

make test

Integration test with(more details):


Individual packages and components can be built and tested like:

go build ./prow/cmd/hook
go test ./prow/plugins/lgtm

(Note: deck depends on non-go static files, these were tested by integration tests, and for e2e test use runlocal if desired.)

How to test a plugin

If you are making changes to a Prow plugin you can test the new behavior by sending fake webhooks to hook with phony.

How to update the cluster

Any modifications to prow Go code will require redeploying the affected binaries. The process of doing so is streamlined, which is highly recommended to all prow instances:

  1. Prow code change PR merged.
  2. post-test-infra-push-prow is automatically triggered, can be found on, which pushes images to
  3. Periodic job ci-test-infra-autobump-prow runs every hour, looking for latest image tags from, and creates a PR (example) to let prow use the latest tag.
  4. Once the periodic job is merged, post-test-infra-deploy-prow deploys the config changes from the PR above.

How to test a ProwJob

The best way to go about testing a new ProwJob depends on the job itself. If the job can be run locally that is typically the best way to initially test the job because local debugging is easier and safer than debugging in CI. See Running a ProwJob Locally below.

Actually running the job on Prow by merging the job config is the next step. Typically, new presubmit jobs are configured to skip_reporting to GitHub and may not be configured to automatically run on every PR with always_run: true. Once the job is stable these values can be changed to make the job run everywhere and become visible to users by posting results to GitHub (if desired). Changes to existing jobs can be trialed on canary jobs.

ProwJobs can also be manually triggered by generating a YAML ProwJob CRD with mkpj and deploying that directly to the Prow cluster, however this pattern is generally not recommended. It requires the use of direct prod cluster access, allows ProwJobs to run in prod without passing presubmit validation, and can result in malformed ProwJobs CRDs that can jam some of Prow’s core service components. See How to manually run a given job on Prow below if you need to do this.

Running a ProwJob Locally

Using is a bash script that runs ProwJobs locally as pods in a Kind cluster. The script does the following:

  1. Installs mkpj, mkpod, and Kind if they are not found in the path. A Kind cluster named mkpod is created if one does not already exist.
  2. Uses mkpj to generate a YAML ProwJob CRD given job name, config, and git refs (if applicable).
  3. Uses mkpod to generate a YAML Pod resource from the ProwJob CRD. This Pod will be decorated with the pod utilities if needed and will exactly match what would be applied in prod with two exceptions:
    1. The job logs, metadata, and artifacts will be copied to disk rather than uploaded to GCS. By default these files are copied to /mnt/disks/prowjob-out/<job-name>/<build-id>/ on the host machine.
    2. Any volume mounts may be substituted for emptyDir or hostPath volumes at the interactive prompt to replace dependencies that are only available in prod. NOTE! In order for hostPath volume sources to reach the host and not just the Kind “node” container, use paths under /mnt/disks/kind-node or set $NODE_DIR before the mkpod cluster is created.
  4. Applies the Pod to the Kind cluster and starts watching it (interrupt whenever, this is for convenience). At this point the Pod will start running if configured correctly.

Once the Pod has been applied to the cluster you can wait for it to complete and output results to the output directory, or you can interact with it using kubectl by first running export KUBECONFIG="$(kind get kubeconfig-path --name=mkpod)".

Requirements: Go, Docker, and kubectl must be installed before using this script. The ProwJob must use agent: kubernetes (the default, runs ProwJobs as Pods). for specific Prow instances

Each Prow instance can supply a preconfigured variant of that properly defaults the config file locations. Example for To test ProwJobs for the instance use config/


This command runs the ProwJob pull-test-infra-yamllint locally on Kind.

./ pull-test-infra-yamllint

You may also need to set the CONFIG_PATH and JOB_CONFIG_PATH environmental variables:

CONFIG_PATH=$(realpath ../config/prow/config.yaml) JOB_CONFIG_PATH=$(realpath ../config/jobs/kubernetes/test-infra/test-infra-presubmits.yaml) ...
Modifying for special scenarios

This tool was written in bash so that it can be easily adjusted when debugging. In particular it should be easy to modify the main function to:

  • Add additional K8s resources to the cluster before running the Pod such as secrets, configmaps, or volumes.
  • Skip applying the pod.yaml to the Kind cluster to inspect it, modify it, or apply it to a real cluster instead of the mkpod Kind cluster. (Same for pj.yaml)
Debugging within a container

To point kubectl to the Kind cluster you will need to export the KUBECONFIG Env. The command to point this to the correct config is echoed in the logging. It will have the form:

export KUBECONFIG='/<path to user dir>/.kube/kind-config-mkpod'

After pointing to the correct master you will be able to drop into the container using kubectl exec -it <pod name> <bash/sh/etc>. **This pod will only last the lifecycle of the job, if you need more time to debug you might add a sleep within the job execution.

Using Phaino

Phaino lets you interactively mock and run the job locally on your workstation in a docker container. Detailed instructions can be found in Phaino’s Readme.

Note: Test containers designed for decorated jobs (configured with decorate: true) may behave incorrectly or fail entirely without the environment the pod utilities provide. Similarly jobs that mount volumes or use extra_refs likely won’t work properly. These jobs are best run locally as decorated pods inside a Kind cluster Using

How to manually run a given job on Prow

If the normal job triggering mechanisms (/test foo comments, PR changes, PR merges, cron schedule) are not sufficient for your testing you can use mkpj to manually trigger new ProwJob runs. To manually trigger any ProwJob, run the following, specifying JOB_NAME:

For K8S Prow, you can trigger a job by running

go run ./config:mkpj --job=JOB_NAME

For your own prow instance:

go run --job=JOB_NAME --config-path=path/to/config.yaml

Alternatively, if you have jobs defined in a separate job-config, you can specify the config by adding the flag --job-config-path=path/to/job/config.yaml.

This will print the ProwJob YAML to stdout. You may pipe it into kubectl. Depending on the job, you will need to specify more information such as PR number.

NOTE: It is dangerous to create ProwJobs from handcrafted YAML. Please use mkpj to generate ProwJob YAML.